Alzheimer's disease: definition, treatment, and guidance

 Alzheimer's disease: definition, treatment, and guidance

Alzheimer's disease is a brain dysfunction named after the German doctor "Alosi Alzheimer's."  He was the first to describe the disease in 1906, after which scientists in the last century were able to come up with many important facts about Alzheimer's disease.

Alzheimer's disease: definition, treatment, and guidance

What is the definition of Alzheimer's disease?

It is a progressive brain disease that destroys brain cells. This leads to problems with memory, thinking, and behavior and severely affects the work, life, and social lifestyle of the infected person, deteriorating their situation over time and often resulting in death. Alzheimer's disease is now classified as the sixth-leading cause of death globally.

There is no final treatment for Alzheimer's currently, but symptoms are treated, and infected patients are supported to make their lives better and help them live with the disease.

Alzheimer's stages:

The disease progresses gradually, and the infected person has five pathological stages:

Phase 1: Early stage of the disease

At this point, the symptoms have not started to appear, and a person may not know that they are infected with Alzheimer's until they have undergone thorough and sophisticated testing. This phase may last for years before the disease is detected.

Phase II: Moderate cognitive impairment

People at this stage experience mild changes in memory and ability to think, but they do not affect a person's life or relationships. A person's ability to make sound decisions may be affected and can become more difficult.

These symptoms are similar to those of diseases other than Alzheimer's, so a person may need more thorough examinations to determine the cause.

Phase III: the simple dementia phase

Alzheimer's disease is often diagnosed at the stage of simple dementia," when it becomes clear to the family and doctors that a person finds it very difficult to remember and think.

Symptoms observed during this period include:
  • Memory loss for near events: A person may have a difficult time remembering newly acquired information and events.
  • difficulty in the ability to solve problems, perform complex tasks, and arrive at sound judgments and decisions.
  • Changes in personality: a person may become quieter or more introverted, especially in socially challenging situations, or display uncharacteristic extreme anger. Less attention and motivation may be given to completing tasks.
  • Difficulty in organizing and expressing ideas: such as finding the right words to describe things or expressing ideas clearly.

Stage 4: Moderate Dementia Phase

They include more memory disorders, poor cognitive function, and the patient's need for help with daily life and essential matters. This phase is characterized by:
  • Inability to recall important details such as its current address or number... and others.
  • The patient is confused about the dates and days.
  • has difficulties solving computational issues such as subtraction and others.
  • She needs help choosing the right clothes for each class or occasion.
  • He usually retrieves basic information about himself, his name, his children, or his life partner.

Phase V: severe dementia phase

This is a very severe stage of cognitive decline, as the infected person loses the ability to:
  • to communicate and talk to the community.
  • Personal care activities include eating, dressing, and using the restroom.
  • It loses the ability to control movement.
  • It loses the ability to swallow and control the bladder and intestine.


The doctor usually gathers information from the patient or his family about the patient's medical history.
Among the tests carried out are:
  • Clinical examinations to assess the neurological and muscular condition
  • Laboratory analyses.
  • Examinations to assess mental conditions
  • Brain imaging.
  • Researchers are working to develop new diagnostic tools to help diagnose Alzheimer's disease at very early stages before it causes symptoms.


There is currently no definitive treatment for Alzheimer's disease, but doctors prescribe medications to alleviate symptoms such as insomnia, anxiety, emotions, and depression.

There are only two types of medicines adopted to slow the deterioration of the disease, including:

1.  Cholinesterase inhibitors:

This group includes:
  • (Donepezil (Aricept
  • (Rivastigmine (Exelon
  • (Galantamine (Razadyne

2. Mematine (Namenda: Mematine (Namenda:

It is the first drug authorized to treat Alzheimer's and not reduce its symptoms; it regulates glutamate activity, another chemical correspondence between learning and memory cells; and it temporarily delays the deterioration of the disease.

Living with Alzheimer's Disease:
Adapting to the living situation of a person with Alzheimer's disease is an important part of any treatment plan.

Some steps can be followed to help a person live with Alzheimer's disease, including:
  • Keep keys, wallets, mobile phones, and other valuables in the same place at home so that you don't forget.
  • Organize medication appointments, preferably once a day, or set an alarm.
  • Use of mobile positioning software to make it easier to find a person in case of loss and forgetting about directions.
  • To help you remember, keep telephone numbers for family or relatives in an accessible location.
  • Use a calendar or whiteboard at home to track your daily schedule.
  • Pay attention to the place of residence and minimize chaos as much as possible.
  • It is important to have family and friends around the patient.
  • Maintaining a regular routine helps reduce the patient's confusion and helps them communicate.

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